We add er to short adjectives which contain one syllable:

EX :  adj + er + than

        fast –> faster


– We add r to short adjectives ending in :

EX :   adj + r + than

safe –> safer


– We must double the consonant when short adjectives end with one vowel and one consonant :

EX : big –>bigger + than


– We must change  y to  and add  er to adjectives with two syllables ending in y :

EX : bus–> busyier  –> busier + than


_ We usually add more or less to other adjectives with two or more syllables :

EX : more + adj + than

         more beautiful

less + adj + than 

– less expensive



bad –> worse

    good –> better

far –> farther/further



To be – Positive Sentences

I am a student.
He is a teacher.
She is a journalist.
It is a book.
We are mechanics.
You are pilots.
They are policemen.

To be – Negative Sentences

I am not a singer.
He is not a receptionist.
She is not a nurse.
It is not my book.
We are not not musicians.
You are not a shop assistant.
They are not taxi drivers.

To be – Yes/No questions

Am I right?
Is he here?
Is she a nurse?
Is it second-hand?
Are we wrong?
Are you Alan Parker?
Are they American?

Demonstrative Pronouns

This; that; these; those; none and neither are Demonstrative Pronouns that substitute nouns when the nouns they replace can be understood from the context. They also indicate whether they are replacing singular or plural words and give the location of the object:


Thissingular and near the speaker

Thatsingular and at a distance from the speaker

Theseplural and near the speaker

Thoseplural and at a distance from the speaker

Eg. 1.: You take these bags and I’ll take those. – (“Those” refers to bags that are at a distance from the speaker.)

Eg. 2: We bought this last year – (“This” refers to something that is sing., near the speaker and readily understood in the context of the conversation.)



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